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Blood Proteins

Definition: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Notes: GEN: avoid: prefer specifics; electrophoresis = BLOOD PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS
Also Called: Plasma Proteins,Serum Protein Effects,Serum Proteins

Blood Proteins Categories.
Acute-Phase Proteins - Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
Amyloid Protein SAA - A serum protein believed to be a circulating precursor to amyloid protein AA. It is present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found in much higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with amyloidosis or with diseases known to predispose to amyloidosis. Very high levels of this protein have been reported during acute inflammatory episodes. Antisera to amyloid protein AA cross-react with protein SAA.
Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte - A ubiquitous membrane transport protein found in the plasma membrane of diverse cell types and tissues, and in nuclear, mitochondrial, and Golgi membranes. It is the major integral transmembrane protein of the erythrocyte plasma membrane, comprising 25% of the total membrane protein. It exists as a dimer and performs the important function of allowing the efficient transport of bicarbonate across erythrocyte cell membranes in exchange for chloride ion.
Ankyrins - A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
Blood Coagulation Factors - Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.
Fibrin - A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.
Hemoglobins - The oxygen-carrying pigments of erythrocytes. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The structure of the globin moiety differs between species.
Immunoproteins - Blood proteins whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Protein S - The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.
Serum Globulins - All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Spectrin - A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
Thyroxine-Binding Proteins - A group of proteins that includes thyroxine-binding globulin, a glycoprotein that serves as the major and specific carrier of thyroxine in plasma, accounting for 70-75% of the bound thyroxine; thyroxine-binding prealbumin, an albumin that serves as the secondary carrier, accounting for between 20 and 25% of the bound thyroxine; and serum albumin, which accounts for the remaining bound thyroxine.
Tumor Necrosis Factor - Serum glycoprotein produced by activated macrophages and other mammalian mononuclear leukocytes. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share two receptors.
Vitronectin - A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Blood Proteins Definitions and Terms

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