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Muscular Diseases

Definition: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL) and smooth muscle (MUSCLE, SMOOTH).
Notes: GEN; prefer specifics; inflamm dis = MYOSITIS. /congen: consider also Myopathies, Structural, Congenital & its indentions

Muscular Diseases Categories.
Compartment Syndromes - Conditions in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of tissue within that space. Compartmentation involves mainly the leg but also involved are the forearm, arm, thigh, shoulder, and buttock. Some of the causes of increased pressure are trauma, tight dressings, hemorrhage, and exercise. Sequelae include nerve compression, paralysis, and contracture.
Eosinophilia-Myalgia Syndrome - A complex systemic syndrome with inflammatory and autoimmune components that affect the skin, fascia, muscle, nerve, blood vessels, lung, and heart. Diagnostic features generally include EOSPINOPHILIA, myalgia severe enough to limit usual activities of daily living, and the absence of coexisting infectious, autoimmune or other conditions that may induce eosinophilia. Biopsy of affected tissue reveals a microangiopathy associated with diffuse inflammation involving connective tissue. (From Spitzer et al., J Rheumatol Suppl 1996 Oct;46:73-9; Blackburn WD, Semin Arthritis Rheum 1997 Jun;26(6):788-93)
Fibromyalgia - A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)
Isaacs Syndrome - A rare neuromuscular disorder with onset usually in late childhood or early adulthood, characterized by intermittent or continuous widespread involuntary muscle contractions; FASCICULATION; hyporeflexia; MUSCLE CRAMP; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; HYPERHIDROSIS; TACHYCARDIA; and MYOKYMIA. Involvement of pharyngeal or laryngeal muscles may interfere with speech and breathing. The continuous motor activity persists during sleep and general anesthesia (distinguishing this condition from STIFF-PERSON SYNDROME). Familial and acquired (primarily autoimmune) forms have been reported. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1998 May 13;841:482-496; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)
Mitochondrial Myopathies - A group of muscle diseases associated with abnormal mitochondria function.
Muscle Cramp - A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
Muscle Rigidity - Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
Muscle Spasticity - A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
Muscle Weakness - A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Muscular Disorders, Atrophic - Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).
Myofascial Pain Syndromes - Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on trigger points, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.
Myopathies, Structural, Congenital - A heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by the early onset of hypotonia, developmental delay of motor skills, non-progressive weakness. Each of these disorders is associated with a specific histologic muscle fiber abnormality.
Myositis - Inflammation of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL). Infectious, autoimmune, and paraneoplastic processes represent some of the more common conditions that may be associated with myositis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed., pp 1402-13)
Myotonic Disorders - Diseases characterized by MYOTONIA, which may be inherited or acquired. Myotonia may be restricted to certain muscles (e.g., intrinsic hand muscles) or occur as a generalized condition. These disorders may be associated with abnormal muscle SODIUM CHANNEL and CHLORIDE CHANNELS. MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY and MYOTONIA CONGENITA represent two relatively common forms of this disorder. Proximal myotonic myopathy often presents with myotonia and muscle pain in early adulthood and later in life thigh muscle weakness and cataracts develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1392)
Paralyses, Familial Periodic - A heterogenous group of inherited disorders characterized by recurring attacks of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis or myotonia. These conditions have in common a mutation of the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle. They are frequently associated with fluctuations in serum potassium levels. Periodic paralysis may also occur as a non-familial process secondary to THYROTOXICOSIS and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1481)
Polymyalgia Rheumatica - A syndrome in the elderly characterized by proximal joint and muscle pain, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a self-limiting course. Pain is usually accompanied by evidence of an inflammatory reaction. Women are affected twice as commonly as men and Caucasians more frequently than other groups. The condition is frequently associated with TEMPORAL ARTERITIS and some theories pose the possibility that the two diseases arise from a single etiology or even that they are the same entity.
Rhabdomyolysis - Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.
Tendinitis - Inflammation of tendons and of tendon-muscle attachments. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tenosynovitis - Inflammation of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced. Friction rubs may be felt or heard (with a stethoscope) on movement. Calcium deposits may occur in the tendon and its sheath, leading to opacities on radiographs of the affected area. (Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Muscular Diseases Definitions and Terms

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