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Nervous System Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Notes: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; /diag: consider also DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES, NEUROLOGICAL; inflamm dis = NEURITIS; "diabetic neuropathy" & "diabetic peripheral neuropathy": index only under DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES;/chem ind: consider NEUROTOXICITY SYND

Nervous System Diseases Categories.
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System - Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases - Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.
Central Nervous System Diseases - Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
Chronobiology Disorders - Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.
Cranial Nerve Diseases - Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
Demyelinating Diseases - Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
Nervous System Malformations - Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.
Neurocutaneous Syndromes - A group of disorders characterized by ectodermal-based malformations and neoplastic growths in the skin, nervous system, and other organs.
Neurodegenerative Diseases - Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
Neurologic Manifestations - Clinical signs and symptoms caused by nervous system injury or dysfunction.
Neuromuscular Diseases - A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLEHYPOTONIA.
Neurotoxicity Syndromes - Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.
Sleep Disorders - Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Trauma, Nervous System - Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.

Nervous System Diseases Definitions and Terms

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