12916 Subcellular Fractions Terms and Definitions at www.MedicalGlossary.org

Home > Anatomy > Cells > Cellular Structures > Subcellular Fractions Terms and Definitions

Subcellular Fractions

Definition: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Notes: NIM; A 11 qualif except /cytol
Previously Indexed: Cytology (1966-1971),Microsomes (1966-1971)

Subcellular Fractions Categories.
Cell-Free System - A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Microsomes - Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Synaptosomes - Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.

Subcellular Fractions Definitions and Terms

MedicalGlossary.org is designed as a free, browsable resource for all. The medical terms and definitions are not intended to replace medical informaion provided by licensed healthcare professionals. Please see a doctor if you need medical assistance. Don't see the medical term you were researching?  Send us an e-mail from our "about us" page.  We will do our best to research and classify new medical terms in a timely manner. Our current list of medical terms is over 26,000. Data sources include the U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2004 Medical Subject Headings.

Copyright 2004 

Main Categories:
Anatomy
Organisms
Diseases
Chemicals and Drugs
Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment
Psychiatry and Psychology
Biological Sciences
Physical Sciences
Anthropology, Education, Sociology and Social Phenomena
Technology and Food and Beverages
Humanities
Information Science Persons
Health Care
Geographic Locations